Holidays December 13
Malta celebrates Republic Day
On December 13, the Republic of Malta celebrates its birthday. In 1964, the country's patriotic communities achieved the proclamation of Malta's independence from the British Empire. The country proclaimed itself a republic in 1974, but the military presence on the islands of British troops remained until 1979. Until that same year, the Queen of Great Britain was considered the head of state. Malta is now a free and dynamically developing country that maintains absolute neutrality and maintains warm relations with most countries of the world.
Day of St. Andrew the Apostle
Andrew, the first disciple to follow Christ. Soon, Andrew brought to Jesus and his brother Peter. From early youth, the apostle Andrew was known as a very pious and generous young man. He never married and lived that he was engaged in fishing with his brother. Andrey fell into disciples of Jesus through the patronage of John the Baptist, who assured him that Jesus was that Savior, the Messiah for the people of Israel. The Apostle Andrew went through with Christ the most tragic and great events in his life. After the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, Andrew the First-Called went around the world to preach the Word of God. His path lay through the Middle East, the Balkans, into the lands of the Slavs and nomads. On his way, the apostle worked miracles, healed the sick, granted enlightenment and wisdom. Not everywhere they took him with cordiality, often it all ended with persecution and danger. Andrew predicted the emergence of Kiev and Novgorod, and in a small village in Byzantium, the apostle laid the foundation of the Christian church, in the future this village will turn into a powerful Constantinople (now Istanbul).
Andrei completed his earthly journey in the city of Patras, where he also preached the teachings of the Lord, many residents of the city adopted the Christian faith, but the pagan opposition remained very strong. The ruler of the city of Egeat also belonged to her, not accepting a new religion, Aegiate angered at Andrei and ordered him to be crucified, but the people stood up for the protection of the holy man and demanded to be released. The ruler, who decided to free the martyr, could not do this, Andrew the First-Called transferred to the abode of the Lord. The name of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First-Called is revered throughout the world, Temples and Cathedrals were erected in his honor, awards and titles were established, squares and avenues were named.
Saint Lucia Day
December 13 Day of the Holy Martyr Lucia, who died preaching Christian values. According to legend, Lucia was the daughter of wealthy parents, after the death of her father, the mother intended to marry her daughter, but Lucia resisted the desire of her mother, gave a celibacy dinner and decided to devote her life to God. The rejected, who entered into an agreement with his mother, the groom launched real persecution against Lucia. They intended to deliver her by force to the estate of the failed bridegroom, however, the wagon and the bulls harnessed to it became tight and even a thousand men could not move them. Mad monsters mad with rage slaughtered the woman with a sword. After death, the remains of Lucia could not find rest and were several times transferred. It is believed that Saint Lucius patronizes the blind. Commemoration of St. Lucia is especially lavishly celebrated in the countries of Scandinavia, and Stockholm traditionally becomes the center of celebrations.
In Armenia, the day of the Holy Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew
Saints Thaddeus and Bartholomew are very revered apostles in Armenia. They were the first to bring the Christian religion to the lands of Armenia. Thaddeus truly glorified Christ and brought the gospel to many nations. He died in Armenia, where he was nailed to a cross and pierced with arrows. Now the remains of St. Thaddeus are preserved in the Etchmiadzin Cathedral. The Apostle Bartholomew preached Christianity in the Middle East, after which he went to Armenia, and he took with him the man-made image of the Mother of God. In Armenia, Bartholomew built the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In the year 68. AD the Apostle Bartholomew was executed along with two thousand of his supporters.
December 13th in the folk calendar
According to popular belief, on this day people listen to water in their wells for the second time; if the water is calm, there will be a good winter; if the water makes moans, noises - there will be frosts, a snowstorm, a blizzard. Check the result with what the water predicted for St. George's Day. People believed that if it snows this day, then it will not come down 110 days.
On St. Andrew's Day, the girls divined their future suitors. Before the day of Apostle Andrew, as usual, the girls kept the fast (so that none of the family members noticed it), and prayed that the apostle would give them a good bridegroom. At dinner, young girls broke off a piece of their piece of bread, and before going to bed they put it under a pillow, pronouncing magic words. It was believed that if you pick a branch from an apple tree that day and put it in a jar of water, and it blooms at Christmas, the girl will marry this year.
Historical events December 13
December 13, 1971 the famous film "Gentlemen of Fortune" was released
The premiere of the picture took place on December 13, 1971. The film was shot by director A. Sery in collaboration with Danelia G. The authors of the film concentrated in one picture the outstanding actors of the Soviet period: Evgeny Leonov, Georgy Vitsin, Savely Kramarov, Erast Garin, Anatoly Papanov, Lyubov Sokolova and others. And the phrases of the actors are so fond of to the audience that the whole country repeated them. The picture combines the genres of comedy and detective, and the brilliant play of the actors instantly made the film a cult. In 1972, the film was watched by more than 65 million viewers, and in the Soviet box office it won an honorable first place.
December 13, 1742 year by the command of the Empress of All-Russian Elizabeth Petrovna, Jews were ordered to leave the borders of the Russian Empire forever
On December 13, 1742, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna ordered by her decree to evict the "Jewish" people from all borders of the immense Russian Empire. The exception was those who, of their own free will, take the Orthodox faith to their hearts. The decree of the tsarina was met not only by Jews, but also by the Empress’s entourage. A number of governors, landowners and merchants opposed the will of the queen. After all, trade with Jewish merchants was very beneficial for these sections of society. Some officials petitioned the queen for permission to enter, at least for Jewish merchants to prevent a decline in trade. However, the autocrat did not want to have any benefit from the enemies of the Orthodox Church.
December 13, 1240 Batu captured capital Kiev
December 13, 1240 Khan Batu finally took control of Kiev. Defenders of the city heroically defended the city, but the superiority of forces in favor of the Tatar hordes was enormous. Despite the numerical superiority, the Mongols hardly took the first barrier wall, but the people of Kiev did not give up and went to Detinets. But soon the central part of the city also fell. The Tatars, who were hiding in the tithe church of the city’s defenders, were not able to storm and set fire to the temple, the collapsed building buried alive all those who had hidden in it. In Kiev, the foundation of the Church of the Tithes was restored, as a memory of these historical events.
December 13, 1642 Abel Tasman discovered a new land
December 13, 1642 traveler Abel Tasman, first saw the shores of New Zealand. The mariner, stepping on new land, declared it the possession of King George III. After the discovery of the islands, James Cook visited here, and after him whalers, sealers and finally Christian preachers. In 1840, representatives of Great Britain forced the leaders of local tribes to sign a humiliating agreement on the transfer of all rights of sovereignty, under the authority of the English crown. The country fell into colonial dependence on England for seventy years. Only in 1993, New Zealand received actual self-government. At present, the state is an independent parliamentary country with a formal protectorate of Great Britain.
December 13, 1967 USA launched a unique spacecraft "Pioneer-8"
On December 13, 1967, NASA launched the Pioneer 8 spacecraft into orbit around the sun. The aim of the project was to study the processes taking place in the sun itself and in the near-solar space. The devices of this series helped scientists better study such phenomena as solar plasma, micrometeorite currents, solar wind, cosmic rays and geomagnetic radiation. Thousands of scientists worked on the creation of the devices, their high quality and excellent technical characteristics allow them to serve people for the benefit now.
December 13, 1577 Francis Drake - "Her Majesty's Pirate" went to the New World
December 13, 1577 Drake went to the New World, to the Spanish colonies. The expedition's goals were the organization of sabotage in the territories of the Spanish colonies, the search for a waterway in the northern hemisphere from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic, extraction of spices in Indonesia, and travel around the world. Drake completed only part of the tasks, but Queen Elizabeth was satisfied with the results.
December 13, 1476 William Caxton laid the foundation for print business in England
In December 13, 1476, Caxton, in his Westminster printing house, printed indulgence in Latin. The very next year, he published the first printed book in Britain - Sayings, or Statements by Philosophers. This event was a turning point for typography in England and marked the beginning of great English literature. Thanks to this momentous event, printing books became much easier and faster, book runs increased thousands of times, books became cheaper and much more affordable.
December 13 were born:
Carlo Gozzi (1720-1806), Italian playwright
Carlo Gozzi was born on December 13 in Venice in the family of a poor nobleman. Gained the first fame thanks to verses and pamphlets of satirical content. He is invited to the literary community of Granelleschi, which professes the principles of conservatism in literature, which was inherent in Gozzi himself. He wrote children's tales, plays, poems, was an implacable opponent of innovations and innovations in the field of literature. In his declining years, Carlo began to write comedies and memoirs, in which he describes the life and life of Venice of the 18th century with bright colors.
Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov (1873 - 1924), prose writer, poet, critic, playwright.
Bryusov, a native of a merchant family, for his time received an excellent education, having graduated from two gymnasiums and the historical and philological department of the institute. He began to write in his early youth. A great influence on the work of the poet had his acquaintance with the works of the French Symbolist poets. He reveals himself as a poet, and as a talented prose writer, playwright, critic. He writes simply and readily, his poems are saturated with warmth and love for his homeland. Critics during his life recognize him as a great poet, especially after the creation of the greatest work “Dreams of Humanity”. The poet is deeply imbued with the fate of the Armenian people and writes the famous collection "Poetry of Armenia". In World War I, he went to the front, and worked there as a full-time front-line correspondent.
Ernst Siemens (1816 - 1892), outstanding German physicist, electrical engineer
An outstanding scientist of his time, a member of a number of Academies of Sciences, including St. Petersburg. He founded the world-famous Siemens concern and a trademark of his name. The first laid an electric cable in the open sea, built the first electric railway. The authorized capital of Siemens JSC amounted to 45 million marks. Siemens Concern carries out a number of foreign projects on street electric lighting, installation and operation of telephones and telegraphs, electrified railways. For the famous achievements in the field of electrical engineering, Ernst Siemens was elevated to count dignity.
Julius Konstantinovich Kovneristy (1937), Russian chemist
An outstanding domestic scientist chemist, recognized by the world community as the largest specialist in the field of creating modern metal structures. Thanks to the discoveries and works of Kovneristy, the country's leading industries, space, defense, and medical, received the most advanced materials used now in the creation of unique devices and structures. Professor, academician member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Nikolai Nikolaevich Rybnikov (1930-1990), actor.
Born December 13, 1930 in the family of the actor. In 1953 he graduated from VGIK and it so happened that he immediately played the first role in his first film, called "The Team from Our Street", it is interesting that Nikolai showed real acting skills in the films "Anxious Youth" and "Alien Relatives". All-Union fame came to Rybnikov after the painting "Spring on the Zarechnaya Street." A year later, a new triumph in the film "Height". The name of the actor rattled throughout the country, women literally went crazy over it. Then there were "Girls", "Girl without an Address" and a number of other wonderful films. For several generations of viewers, and now with warmth and love, they recall films with the participation of the talented actor Nikolai Rybnikov.
Name Day December 13th:
Andrey, Vladislava, Ivan.