The unexpected happened - your baby was born prematurely. You should not panic, although, indeed, sometimes the situation can be quite serious. But, as a rule, this happens if the child was born with significant developmental defects that are not compatible with life and medicine (despite the fact that in the last 10-15 years she has stepped far forward in terms of nursing premature babies) is powerless. And yet, you need to believe in the best. Neonatologists specializing in the treatment of premature babies will provide the necessary assistance in the recovery of your baby and will provide competent detailed advice on caring for him.
Often, young mothers, having brought home a small child, whose important functions of the body have not formed enough, do not know how to care for the baby at first, what conditions must be created for its normal development.
What is the first thing you need to pay attention to?
- One of the most important requirements is compliance with the temperature regime. Premature babies, whose thermoregulation system is still not sufficiently developed, need a certain temperature of their environment - 22-24 degrees. It is necessary to ventilate the premises every 3 hours. The baby's body temperature is best measured twice a day, in order to avoid overheating of the baby.
- To put on children whose body weight exceeds 2 kg., You can also, as well as ordinary children. On light children (1.5 kg. And less), put on a knitted cap, a blouse with a hood, diapers and romper suit. Then they wrap them in a dirt blanket, put them in a wool envelope and cover them with a flannel blanket. At the end of 1 month, the envelope and blanket are removed.
- Premature children are allowed full walks only from the 2nd month of life, before that their duration should not exceed 15-20 minutes.
- Bathing children up to 2 kg. start after closure of the umbilical wound, over 2 kg. - from a weekly age. Water should be boiled, at a temperature of 38 degrees.
The gastrointestinal tract of premature infants is characterized by significant immaturity: a weakly expressed sucking reflex, a small volume of the stomach and low enzyme activity, deficiency of intestinal bifidoflora. Children are prone to frequent regurgitation, bloating, diarrhea, or constipation. An ideal diet is mother's milk, which contains valuable nutrients and protects against infection. In case the mother does not have milk, there are currently special mixtures for premature babies. If the baby can not suckle a breast or a bottle, you can use a spoon or pipette for feeding.
To prevent regurgitation, it is necessary to feed often and in small portions. You should refuse to feed by the hour, and after eating, be sure to keep the child in an upright position for 20 minutes.
Features of the nervous system
A premature baby has increased irritability, difficulty falling asleep, there are cramps, tremors, and a violation of muscle tone. A neurologist is one of the main doctors for premature babies, whose consultation is carried out at least once a month. On the recommendation of a doctor, brain ultrasound, sleep encephalogram, massage and exercise, which give a good effect, can be prescribed. Exercises start from 3 months.
The main diseases of premature babies
The first months of life are characterized by a peculiar course of diseases: the symptoms are fuzzy or weakly expressed while maintaining a normal temperature. As a rule, the cause of the elevated temperature is overheating.
Dramatically reduced immunity contributes to the protracted course of diseases and the development of septic complications. The most common conditions are intestinal infections, otitis media, pneumonia, and flu. Due to the high susceptibility to infections, it is necessary to reduce the number of people in the environment, to limit visits to guests. In case of a disease, the mother of the baby is fed with expressed milk, and the woman uses a gauze bandage or mask.
Premature babies must be registered at the place of residence for 7 years. In addition, you can be observed in specialized clinics and hospitals, depending on the health status of your baby.
The main doctors who need to be monitored are:
- Neurologist (for example, Children's Psycho-Neurological Hospital No. 18 has an outpatient department where you can seek advice if necessary).
- An orthopedist (for example, Zatsepin Children's City Hospital No. 19 has a very good outpatient department, with the ability to have an ultrasound and X-ray of the hip joint. There are massage rooms and exercise therapy).
- Cardiologist (or, as intended, cardiac surgeon).
- In addition, of course, close contact with a pediatrician, district or private is necessary.
An optometrist (for example, in the Helmholtz Eye Research Institute there is a special room for premature babies, where ophthalmologists specializing in the development of the visual apparatus of such children will provide all possible assistance, and if necessary, they will conduct special studies: ultrasound, etc. P.).
Parents require patience, care, attention and faith that their child, even if born prematurely, will recover and, of course, will catch up with their peers in the development.